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Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences 4th ed. Streiner, D. Starting at the beginning: An introduction to coefficient alpha and internal consistency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80 1 , Tiesinga, L. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 35, Arguments were collected through various sources e. The specific scenario that students had to work on was vegetarianism. More specifically, students were asked to make individual decisions on whether they would accept an only-vegetarian meal policy for their school. Arguments included conflicting positions about health, diet, animal life and environment.
Session 2 included training on the decision-making strategy and students applying the strategy to the vegetarianism scenario. The session started with a conversation about the type of everyday decisions that students make and how they go about making these decisions. This process prepared students for the content and had them reflect on how they typically make decisions in their everyday life. Students were then presented with six steps see Table 1 that they needed to follow in order to make a decision, using an example decision-making scenario organic versus mass-production fruits. In the end, students were also asked to reflect on the process by rating the perceived difficulty of the strategy, its usefulness and its potential use in the future on a scale of 1 to 5.
These questions were important in order to explore how students perceived the strategy, as this was a novel context that students had no prior experience in. The purpose of Session 3 was to give students the opportunity to practise the strategy learned in the previous session. At the beginning of the session, the instructor briefly reminded students of the strategy and gave them a new scenario to apply the strategy to. Session 3 was added to the overall design to help students to comprehend the strategy better, get clarification if needed and practise the strategy one more time before the post-test.
For the pre- and post-tests, students had to read a decision-making scenario on the debated extension of their local airport, review the information and make a decision explaining their rationale. The direct instruction intervention was considered successful as, on average, students improved their decision-making competence by 20 per cent between the pre- and the post-test. Figure 1 presents the findings from the self-reported measure on the perceived difficulty, usefulness, future use and future-use competency of the decision-making strategy that they learned.
In general, in self-reported measures students, have to directly report on their attitudes, beliefs, behaviours, etc. Students in our study had to reflect on the decision-making strategy they were taught and rate on a score of 1 to 5 how difficult they found it, how useful they think it is, whether they would use the strategy in their future decisions and how competent they feel to do so. More than 70 per cent of the students stated that it was easy or very easy for them to apply the decision-making strategy that they were taught, with a quarter of them rating the difficulty as intermediate.
These results are very encouraging as they show that the decision-making strategy has high potential to be introduced to primary schools, as the students that participated in the study had no prior knowledge of the topic. What is more, most of the students 86 per cent found the strategy useful or very useful, indicating that they understand the importance of systematic and informed decision-making. About the Authors. How to Use This Book. We have divided this book into five sections. Warren Kidd , Gerry Czerniawski.
The remainder of the capital and running costs are met by the state. Achievement What learners obtain as a final measurable outcome often based on national examination. Action research Practitioner teacher -based research where the researcher adopts transformative actions — often based on reflection and experimentation — with a view to developing aspects of their practice further.
Assessment for learning The view that assessment practices especially formative should be structured in order to enable learners to extend their learning in the future. Behaviour management The strategies teachers adopt to ensure learners are demonstrating approved behaviour.
Behaviourism A school of psychology that has influenced educational approaches to teaching and learning.
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In particular it focuses on the variety of ways teachers can transfer knowledge to learners. Vocational qualifications come and go but BTECs have managed to retain a high status with learners, employers and teachers. Classroom management The strategies used to manipulate the learning environment to ensure learning takes place with the maximum efficiency, including behaviour management strategies.
Cognition Thinking. Cognitive growth Refers to any sort of change in thinking that is brought about by events either internally within the brain for example, the development of the frontal lobe or externally for example, certain forms of interaction, life events. Communities of practice Learning groups within organisations which develop mutual learning and support practices among members performing similar practices.
Competencies Competencies are general descriptions of the abilities needed to perform a role in a profession.
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Applied to teaching they are often used to refer to the national standards expected to be achieved if a teacher is to become professionally qualified. Consortia These are the bodies made up of employers, schools, colleges, training providers, and so on that the government uses to roll out the Diploma programme. Based on a competitive system, successful consortia gain funding to offer specific Diploma pathways.
Continuing professional development CPD Support, training and skills enhancement undertaken by professionals to keep in good standing with the development of their profession and their own professional expertise. Cross-curricular The variety of ways in which formal learning can extend beyond traditional subject disciplines for example, through the teaching of functional skills, citizenship. Cultural capital The norms and values associated with a particular cultural group.
Differentiation Accommodating difference in learners and learning; ensuring that all learners are supported and developed. Dual-professionalism The view that many teachers in further education FE are both a teacher and another vocational professional at the same time — thus giving them a dual professional identity. Economic capital The financial means money, property, and so on associated with a particular cultural group that can be used in education to increase the educational attainment of learners. In particular he argues that self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills are as valid indicators of intelligence as more traditional understandings that tend to privilege logic and rationality.
Exclusion A contested term used to refer to the removal of learners from their learning environment. Formal curriculum This refers to everything that is formally taught in the school or college, that is, the range of subjects on offer. Formative assessment Regular assessment designed to help support learners with the next steps in their learning journey. Further education FE The term that is used for any education beyond secondary education up to, but not including, degree-level studies. Higher education HE Refers to adult education that offers degree-level studies.
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Gifted and talented A contested term that many institutions use to describe the top 10 per cent of pupils who perform academically better than their counterparts. Globalisation Global forces and patterns that interconnect and lead to a spread of influences across and between nations, continents and political and geographical regions.
Habitus Regular pattern and routine: the shape culture and norms give to practices. Priority is given to the development of the whole person and not just the intellect. Hyperactivism Rapid and continuous expansion and flood of political policy.
Identity Who you think you are. Institutional racism The unintentional ways in which schools, colleges and other institutions marginalise learners as a result of their ethnicity, race and culture, etc.
Ipsative assessment Learner assessment of their own learning, illustrating through reflection directions to take to increase learning further. Often used to explain the process in which teachers attribute educational potential based on class, gender or ethnicity. The marketisation of education The marketisation of education involves the belief that competition at all levels should provide a higher standard of education. By adapting business principles to education the idea embraces the notion that the market should allocate resources where required. Methods Tools adopted; in this case, it could be tools to aid teaching and learning strategies or assessment practices or, even, research tools.
Methodology The underlying and underpinning way of going about a practice; in this case, the practice of teaching and learning or the practice of educational research. Motivation for learning Phrase associated with the Assessment Reform Group denoting the preconditions needed to enthuse learners to enable effective learning to take place.
Multiple intelligences An idea most famously associated with American psychologist Howard Gardner.